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Am. J. Biomed. Sci. Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2017, 9(4), 211-224; doi:10.5099/aj170400211
Received: 18 September 2017; | Revised: 25 October 2017; |Accepted:04 December 2017

 

Hepatitis B Vaccination Outcomes and Broad Spectrum of Hepatitis B Infections in Nigeria: An Evidence-Based Picture

 

Fasakin KA1, Ajayi OD2

1Department of Haematology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido Ekiti, Nigeria.

2School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

*Corresponding Author

Kolawole A. Fasakin

Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion,

Federal Teaching Hospital, P.M.B 201, Ido Ekiti.

Email: fasakin_kolawole@yahoo.co.uk

GSM: +2347031890651.

 

Abstract

Background: Current evidence-based data on Hepatitis B vaccination coverage and outcomes in Nigeria are limited and these raise serious concern among stakeholders in clinical settings with respect to prevention of hepatitis B and safety of transfusion recipients. This study evaluated hepatitis B vaccination coverage and outcomes among apparently healthy blood donors in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Methods: Hepatitis B viral markers, including hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb), were serologically screened in four hundred and seventy prospective blood donors using NOVA 5-in-1 HBV rapid one-step multi-test kit and the results were interpreted using descriptive statistics of SPSS version 21. Results: Out of the four hundred and seventy (470) blood donors screened, 85 (18.1%) and 385 (81.9%) were vaccinated research participants and unvaccinated research participants (VRP and UVRP) respectively. Male: Female ratio and mean age (SD) of VRP were 1:1 and 26.5 6.8 while those of the UVRP were 1.6:1 and 26.9 7.7. Evidence of successful vaccination was observed in 2.55% and 4.68% of VRP and UVRP respectively. Broad spectrum HBV infection totaling 11.05% based HBV markers seroprevalence was observed among the UVRP compared to the VRP with 0.85% seroprevalence. Conclusion: Low hepatitis B vaccine coverage among blood donors poses serious threats to public health including recipients of blood transfusion and hepatitis B vaccination programme should be re-strategized to cover the grass roots. Low HBV infection among the vaccinated research participants compared to the unvaccinated group showed long-term protection despite HBsAb loss. Post-vaccination testing is recommended for specific categories of individuals.

Keywords: Hepatitis B Virus, Vaccination, infections, Broad spectrum, Blood donors, Evidence-based picture

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