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Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2019,11(4),209-225;doi:10.5099/aj190400209
Received:03 June 2019; | Revised:25 June 2019; | Accepted:06 December 2019


Effect of Exercise Training and Adropin Treatment on Thyroid and Testicular Function Changes in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats


Khaled Abdelfattah Abulfadle1*, Naglaa Atef Ahmed1

1 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

*Corresponding Author

Dr. Khaled Abdelfattah Abulfadle

Physiology Department, Faculty of Medicine

Zagazig University


Email: khafadle@gmail.com



Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and thyroid dysfunctions are commonly observed concomitant endocrinopathies that have a common pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Also, adropin is a metabolic hormone that is secreted by many structures in the body. On the other hand, moderate exercise training was recorded to combat changes that occurred with obesity. But, the available information about the effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on testicular function was contradictory and a scarce data was available on the effect of exercise training and adropin treatment on both thyroid and testicular functions in obese type 2 diabetic rats.

Aim: This study investigated thyroid and testicular function changes occurred in obese type 2 diabetic rats and explored the effect of moderate exercise training and adropin treatment.

Materials and Methods: Rats in this 10 weeks' study were divided randomly into two main groups, lean non-diabetic (were fed on ordinary chow) and obese diabetic [were fed on high fat and received streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) at the start of the 5th week]. Each main group was subdivided into sedentary, exercised and adropin treated subgroups. For the last 5 weeks of the study, rats in the exercised subgroups were exposed to a moderate swimming exercise protocol, while those in the adropin treated subgroups were administered adropin daily (2.1 μg/kg).

Results: Obese diabetic groups had a significant increase in the final body weight, weight difference, body mass index (BMI), serum levels of [glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), malondialdehyde (MDA) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)] and value of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), with a significant decrease in serum [adropin, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone] and epididymal sperm [count, motility and deformity] in comparison with the lean non-diabetic groups. Also, within the obese diabetic groups, serum adropin was negatively associated with weight difference, BMI, serum (glucose, TC, TNFα and TSH) and HOMA-IR, but it was positively correlated to serum (HDL, SOD, T4, LH and testosterone) and epididymal sperm count. With both moderated exercise training (obese diabetic exercised group) and adropin treatment (obese diabetic adropin treated group), a significant decrease was detected in the final body weight, weight difference, BMI, serum levels of (glucose, insulin, TG, TC, LDL, TNFα, MDA and TSH) and HOMA-IR value, with a significant elevation in serum (adropin, HDL, SOD, T4, T3, FSH, LH and testosterone) and epididymal sperm [count, motility and deformity] in comparison with the obese diabetic sedentary group.

Conclusion: Both moderate exercise training and exogenous adropin treatment deteriorated thyroid and testicular function changes occurred in obese type 2 diabetic rats through their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.


Keywords:Adropin, Exercise training, Thyroid function, Testicular function 


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