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Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2019,11(4),226-236;doi:10.5099/aj190400226
Received:02 May 2019; | Revised:27 May 2019; | Accepted:07 December 2019


Evaluation of Antioxidant Parameters in Contraceptive Users in Family Planning Centres in Kaduna State, Nigeria


Ebirien-Agana Samuel Bartimaeus1*, Maria Ogochukwu Egbuna1 , 

Zachaeus Awortu Jeremiah2 and Stella Urekweru Ken-Ezihuo1

1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, P.M.B. 5080, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo,

Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author

Dr Ebirien-Agana Samuel Bartimaeus

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, P.M.B. 5080

Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Rivers State,


Tel.: +2348033410302

Email: ebbyagana@gmail.com, bartimaeus.ebi@ust.edu.ng



Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the levels of oxidative stress parameters in women using progestogen-only contraceptives and compare the levels with population of women not involved with contraceptive use.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 250 apparently healthy, non-pregnant, non- smoking women, aged between 18 and 50 years were recruited.  150 women served as the study subjects while 100 healthy non-pregnant women of the age bracket who have never used any contraceptive device constitute the control population. The subjects willingly consented to participate in the study. 5mls of whole blood was collected by standard venipuncture technique from each participant into dipotassium ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) bottle and plasma separated for the determination of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde and total antioxidant activity using standardized procedures. Values obtained were analyzed statistcally and significance was established at p < 0.05.

Results: Result showed that significantly (p<0.05) elevated mean of 42.24±6.23µ/mg protein and 45.02±6.07 µ/mg protein for catalase activity and 24.27±11.25 µmol/ml/mg protein and 29.58±9.87 for malondialdehyde level for non-contraceptive and contraceptive users were observed. No significant (p>0.05) variation in the means of other natural antioxidants was observed. Also no significant variation in the means of the antioxidants was found between the implant and injectable contraceptive users. Similarly, variation in age class and duration of use of contraceptives did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the activities of the antioxidants in the contraceptive users. However, the correlations of the antioxidant indices levels obtained from the hormonal contraceptives with the age of the subjects and the duration of use of the contraceptives showed that a moderate positive corelation (r = 0.344) and (r = 0.3258) of SOD and GPx was found with the duration of use of the implant contraceptives (combined) while a negative correlation (r = -0.388) was observed between CAT and duration of use the implant contraceptives respectively.

Conclusion: These results though conflicting brings to the fore the observation that prolonged use of hormonal contraceptives may reverse the lipid peroxidation and tisssue damage initially experienced with hormonal contraceptive use.


Keywords: Contraceptives, Malondialdehyde, Catalase, Superoxide dismutase, Gluthathione peroxidase


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