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Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2020,12(3),164-172;doi:10.5099/aj200300164
Received:15 June 2020; | Revised:06 July 2020; | Accepted:07 September 2020


Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination of Ready-To-Eat Foods Sold in Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.


Oluboyo Bernard Oluwapelumi*, Salami Abolore Oluwasegun, Akinseye Janet Funmilayo, Akele Richard Yomi

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.

*Corresponding Author

Oluboyo Bernard Oluwapelumi

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences

Afe Babalola University

Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State


Email: oluboyobo@abuad.edu.ng

ORCID I.D: 0000-0002-0493-1107 

Phone number: +2348036719999



Vendors of ready-to-eat foods attach great importance to speed of service. None adherence to standard procedures in processing foods results to food contamination with pathogenic microorganisms. This study evaluated ready-to-eat foods in some restaurants in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria for bacterial contamination. Ninety (90) samples consisting of thirty samples each of fried Rice, steamed beans pudding (Moimoi) and Cole-slaw were randomly collected from six different restaurants and transported aseptically under cold condition to the laboratory for evaluation using standard microbiological techniques. The total aerobic plate counts of organisms were expressed as colony forming units per gram of sample. Antibiotic sensitivity was done on the isolates. Of the total samples, 209 bacterial isolates were recorded from nine bacteria genera. The bacteria isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (22.0%), Escherichia coli (18.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.3%), Salmonella typhi (11.5 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.6%), Bacillus cereus (7.2%), Citrobacter freundii (7.0%), Proteus mirabilis (5.3%) and Enterobacter aerogenes (4.3%). The bacteria load ranged from 1.17 x 103-3.19 x 106 cfu/g of food. Moimoi appeared generally safe, fried Rice range between tolerable and unacceptable limits while Cole-slaw was generally unacceptable for human consumption. The microorganisms demonstrated gross resistance to tested antibiotics except ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Management of food-borne infections caused by the microorganisms may pose clinical challenges. Health education to improve the knowledge of food vendors and consumers on food safety and hygienic practices is hereby advocated. Regulation and effective monitoring for enforcement of standards among vendors of ready-to-eat foods are therefore recommended.


Keywords: Ready-to-eat; Restaurants; Contamination; Microbial load; Resistance


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