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Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2020,12(3),173-182;doi:10.5099/aj200300173
Received:13 April 2020; | Revised:22 May 2020; | Accepted:08 September 2020

 

Epidemiology and Burden of Schistosoma Haematobium Infection Among School Children in Osun State, Nigeria

 

Akeem Abiodun AKINDELE 1*, Olumide Abimbola ADEDEJI 2, Babawale AMOO 2, Adesola Adegboyega ADEKUNLE 2, Samuel Adeyinka ADEDOKUN 1, Oloyede Samuel BOLAJI 1, Olugbenga Adekunle OLOWE 1, Olusola OJURONGBE 1

1 Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Osogbo, Nigeria.

2 Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author

Dr. Akindele A. A.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences

Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso

Nigeria

E-mail: akindeleaa@yahoo.com

 

Abstract

Background: Urinary schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) and remains a major public health problem among school-aged pupils in tropical and subtropical countries.

Objective: This study assessed the current status of the urinary schistosomiasis among school children in a rural community, Southwestern Nigeria.

Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a Nigerian rural community between October 2016 and March 2017. Urine specimens were collected from 300 school children, and were processed using sedimentation technique and examined microscopically for the ova of Schistosoma haematobium. Infected participants were treated with oral doses of praziquantel (PZQ) at 40 mg/Kg body weight. Egg reduction rate was used to assess the drug efficacy. Population abundance of the snail intermediate hosts was assessed using hand-held scooping. Cercaria shedding was assessed and species of snails identified based on shell morphology. Data was analysed with the SPSS version 18.0 software

Results: A prevalence of 73.3% (19.1329.13) of urinary schistosomiasis was recorded among the study participants. Male students (52.70%, 9.8618.33) were more infected than females (47.27%, 19.2629.13). Prevalence of infection decreases as the age increases with the highest prevalence among the age group 13 to 16 years (66.5%, 14.2826.40) and the lowest among the age group 17 to 21years (62.5%, 7.098.13). The 220 Schistosoma haematobium infected children received a single oral dose of 40 mg / kg of PZQ and were followed for 12 weeks. At 4th, 8th and 12th weeks after treatment, the ERR was 65.70%, 82.91% and 100%, consecutively. ERR was significantly higher in children with mild infection compared to those with severe infection. Ninety-nine (90.5%) children were microscopically negative four weeks after treatment. After the second treatment cycle, the cure rate at 8th and 12th weeks was 98.60% and 100% sequentially. Three different freshwater snails were obtained from the study area. Percentage distribution of the three snail hosts population is as follows: Bulinus spp (26.0%), Biomphalaria spp. (12.3%) and Oncomelania spp (61.7%). The highest cercariae shedding snail was the Bulinus spp.

Conclusion: The results revealed a high prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among the school children with associated impacts on the packed cell volume. The therapeutic potency of PZQ at 40 mg/kg against S. haematobium was re-established.

 

Keywords: Children, Praziquantel, Packed cell volume

 

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