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Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2016, 8(4), 311-321; doi: 10.5099/aj160400311
Received: 04 December 2016; | Revised: 14 December 2016; | Accepted: 22 December 2016


Insight into the Mechanism of SDS Irritation on Human Skin Keratinocytes by Examination of Changes in Gene Expression


Changtao Wang1,2, Quan An3, Dan Zhao2, Meng Li2, Hongyan Zheng4, Jiachan Zhang2,

Juan Liu4, Li Yang4, Ning Su4*

1Beijing Advanced Innovation Centre for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Technology and Business University, Haidian District, Beijing, China

2Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Research and Development, Beijing Technology and Business University, Haidian District, Beijing, China

3Yunnan Baiyao Group Co., Ltd., Chenggong District, Kunming, China

4Chinese Academy of Inspection and QuarantineDaxing District, Beijing, China

*Corresponding Author

Ning Su

Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine

Daxing District, Beijing


Tel. 086-010-85747388.

Email: sun@caiq.org.cn



Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is widely used as an irritant. Inflammatory and immune related cytokines/chemokines are released by keratinocytes following SDS irritation. However, a specific effect of SDS on keratinocytes and the mechanism of skin irritation caused by SDS have not been investigated. To explore the irritant mechanism of SDS on keratinocytes, a gene microarray was used to detect the changes in gene expression after treating keratinocytes with SDS for different amounts of time. After 0.5 h and 1 h SDS exposure, there were changes mainly in genes in the rheumatoid arthritis pathway (CCL5, IL-6, FOS, CSF1, and HLA-DPB1) and TNF signaling pathway (TNF, CSF2, CXCL3, TNFAIP3, PTGS2, CXCL8, CCL20, and PIK3CA) to cause a pro-inflammatory reaction as well as autoimmune activation. After treating with SDS for 2 h and 4 h, there were changes in the expression of genes (LIF, PIM1, MAP3K8, CCNA1, RUNX1, and CYP1) that are related to cell apoptosis and cancerization. This was related to changes in transcriptionalactivity in the cancer and tryptophan metabolism pathway. Overall, SDS irritation caused different changes in gene expression over time, which altered the state of keratinocytes affecting processes of inflammation, autoimmune response, cell apoptosis, and cancerization. These results provide insight into the irritation process of SDS and provide reference for the future evaluation of skin irritation.

Keywords: SDS irritation, Keratinocytes, Gene microarray, Signaling pathway, Inflammation

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