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Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2021,13(2),51-59;doi:10.5099/aj210200051
Received:08 September 2020; | Revised:10 April 2021; | Accepted:19 April 2021


Effects of Underwater Environment on Different Body Functions  


Eman S. Abdul Hamid1 and Khaled A. Abdel-Sater2

1 Student, Qena Faculty of Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt

2 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assiut, Egypt 

*Corresponding Author

Khaled A. Abdel-Sater,

Department of Physiology,

Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University






Physiology is the study of life processes within the body. This review provides an overview of how the human body normally responds to the varied conditions underwater. This is a brief overview of respiratory, cardiovascular and sensations physiological reactions associated with diving. Breathing rate, gas exchange, lung volumes, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, renal functions, gut effects, regulation of temperature, vision, hearing, equilibrium, smell and taste, and touch were mentioned.


Keywords: Underwater, Diving, Diving reflex, Dive response, Dive physiology


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