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Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2022,14(1),39-46;doi:10.5099/aj220100039
Received:06 November 2021; | Revised:27 November 2021; | Accepted:15 March 2022


Melatonin and Alpha Lipoic Acid Restore Gonadal Hormones of Lopinavir/ritonavir-Treated Male Albino rats  


Elias Adikwu1*, Nelson Braimbaifa2, Wolfe Atuboyedia Obianime2, Owunari. A. Georgewill2

1 Department of Pharmacology/Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

2 Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria

*Corresponding Author

Dr Elias Adikwu

Department of Pharmacology/Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Niger Delta University

Bayelsa State


Email: adikwuelias@gmail.com



Background: The use of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) may cause gonadal hormone dysfunction as an adverse consequence. Melatonin (MT) and alpha lipoic acid (ALA) have been associated with the regulations of gonadal functions. Objectives: The current study investigated the protective effects of MT and ALA against LPV/r-induced alterations in gonadal hormones of male albino rats. Methods: Rats were randomized into groups and were orally supplemented with MT (10mg/kg), ALA (10mg/kg) and MT + ALA prior to treatment with LPV/r (22.9/5.71-91.4/22.9 mg/kg) daily for 90 days, respectively. Rats were sacrificed, blood samples were collected, and sera were extracted and evaluated for luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle - stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T), prolactin (PRL) and estradiol (ED). Results: Significant (p<0.001) decreases in serum LH, FSH, and T levels with significant (p<0.001) increases in PRL and ED levels in a dose-related fashion occurred in LPV/r-treated rats when compared to control. However, serum LH, FSH, T, PRL and ED levels were significantly restored in rats supplemented with MT (p<0.01), ALA (p<0.01) and MT+ALA (p<0.001) when compared to LPV/r-treated rats. Conclusion: This study showed that MT and ALA restored serum gonadal hormones of LPV/r-treated rats.


Keywords: Lopinavir/ritonavir; testis, hormones, antioxidants, protection


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