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Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2022,14(4),177-188; doi:10.5099/aj220400177
Received:24 November 2022; | Revised:27 November 2022; | Accepted:13 December 2022


Evaluation of Some Biochemical Birth Defects Biomarkers (Triple Tests) Neglected Routinely in Ante-Natal Clinic Screening in Older Pregnant Women in Benin City, Nigeria  


Osadolor, H.B1, Umeche, I.E.2

1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, P.M.B. 1154, University of Benin.

2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, P.M.B. 04, Edo State University, Uzairue - Auchi.

*Corresponding Author

Osadolor, H.B.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science,

College of Medical Sciences,,University of Benin

P.M.B 1154, Benin City, Edo State


E-mail: humphrey.osadolor@uniben.edu





Prenatal triple marker serum screening has become a standard tool used in obstetrical care to identify pregnancies that may have an increased risk for certain birth defects like neural tube defect, trisomy 21 and trisomy 18. According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, it has become standard in prenatal care to offer screening tests for neural tube defects and genetic abnormalities. This study therefore aims to evaluate some biochemical birth defects biomarkers (Triple Tests) neglected routinely in Ante-Natal Clinic Screening in older pregnant women from 35 years and above in Benin City (serum levels of alpha feto-protein, estriol and beta human chorionic gonadotropin).

The blood samples were collected from one hundred (100) subjects recruited for the study. Serum was processed from clotted blood samples and analyzed using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. Ultrasound scan was also adopted to confirm the laboratory results. All the results were analyzed statistically using student T-test and Chi square. A prevalence of P ≤ 0.05% was considered as statistically significant.

From the study, the results obtained showed significant difference in the values of alpha-feto protein, 141.02 ± 80.19ng/ml and 163.11 ± 112.69ng/ml, at P < 0.026 for test and control subjects respectively. The estriol, also, exhibited a significant difference in the result of test subjects (2108 ± 194.82) and control (1957.14 ± 422) at P< 0.023. The ultrasound scan used to confirm the laboratory results showed some abnormalities like neural tube defects, hydrocephalus, anencephaly and polyhydramnios. The study concluded that abnormal pregnancy outcome is strongly associated with increase in maternal age. Also, it showed that triple screen is to be performed during pregnancy preferably in the second trimester to classify a patient as either high or low risk for chromosomal abnormalities and neural tube defects. Thus, there is need to include these biomarkers in routine antenatal screening, particularly as women advances in age.


Keywords: birth defect, trisomy, hcg, alpha-feto-protein


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